Automatic Shut Off Valve (SOV): To reduce the amount of water that is wasted, RO systems have an automatic shut off just before the membrane. This is tied to the capacity of the storage tank and helps to increase the pressure that is maintained in the whole system.
Check Valve: Located on the exit of the reverse osmosis membrane vessel. This valve prevents any backward flow of water from storage tank as any backward flow may rupture the RO membrane.
Cold water line valve: Valve that connects to the cold water supply line, which is the water source for the RO system.
Drain Line: This is the line that extends from the outlet of the RO membrane to the drain. The flow control system is present in this line which regulates the pressure to optimize flow rate against the reverse osmosis membrane.
Faucet: Most reverse osmosis units use their own faucet to deliver the purified water.
Flow Restrictor: This is the regulator of flow control to maintain a proper flow rate. It’s function is to maintain the correct level of pressure necessary, and it located in the reverse osmosis draining tube.
Pre-Filter (s): From the cold water line valve to the reverse osmosis membrane, the water goes through one or more pre-filters. These are usually sediment or carbon filters that remove sand silt, dirt, organic compounds, and other sediment, which all can have a negative impact on the membrane.
Post-Filter (s): From the RO storage tank to the faucet the water pasts through one of more post-filters. These filters are generally granulated activated carbon (GAC) filters and serve to reduce odors and tastes.
Reverse Osmosis Membrane: This is the pivotal component for any reverse osmosis system. The most commonly used spiral wound is composed in two ways: cellulose triacetate (CTA) and thin film composite/material (TFC/TFM). The major difference between the two is that CTA membranes are chlorine tolerant, where TFC/TFM are not.
Storage tank: A standard reverse osmosis storage tank holds about 2.5 gallons of purified water. In order to function properly and maintain pressure there is a bladder on the inside of the storage tank.